Tuesday, 23 May 2017

The Different Rate of Kicking Indicator Between Winning & Losing Team


Shapie, M.N.M, (1,2) & Mohd Noh, M.H, (1,3)

1. Fakulti Sains Sukan dan Rekreasi, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor 

Abstract

The aim of this learning is to know tactical used by the Malaysia silat athlete in winning match on 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Four matches were selected, men class A quarterfinals (Malaysia vs Thailand), men class B (Malaysia vs Thailand), men class F semi-final (Malaysia vs Singapore), men class H final (Malaysia vs Indonesia). Punch, kick, topple, sweep and etc are the technique that been chose to analyse the performance of athlete from Malaysia. The indicators that being used are punch, kick, topple, sweep, and block. This will be more focusing in indicators and will be notated based on hit on target, hit elsewhere and missing opponents.

Keywords: kicking, martial arts, coaching, performance analysis


Silat Melayu competition it is come from Malaysia. But now it is famous among other country because there want won a gold medal in competition (Schepens B, Willems PA, Cavagna GA, 1998). There are three types of Silat named as championship, showmanship and freestyle. Championship type are usually involved of contest or match that the participant named as ‘pesilat’ aims to become a champion either in distrinct, state, national or international. The major competition that offered the international champion are World Silat Championship, European Championship and South East Asian Games. Next, the showmanship is a friendly contest that ‘pesilat’ just show the talent that there have. Last, the freestyle types is ‘pesilat’ in a ring with other martial arts such as judo, karate and others (Shapie, 2011).
In this study, the kick motion will be analyzed specifically to the kick hit target, kick hit elsewhere and kick missing opponent. According to Shapie(2010) stated that the scientific research shows that even though the percentage of successful punching technique is higher than kicking technique, the point scores for every successful kick is two points.
Other than that, it also to investigate the difference between the winners and losers Malaysia team in silatolahraga matches in kick indicators. The notational data will take and recorded. Then the data will put in SPSS to find the mean, standard deviation and significant 2 tailed. The observation are involve in this study is to find the frequency the specific technique that need to analyse (Aziz A, Tan B, Teh KC, 2002).  
So, the combination of successful blocking and kicking technique will reward the pesilat 'one plus two point' or three points. This is important if the pesilat only depends on kicking technique. The pesilat need to combine both of the defensive and attacking techniques to win a silat game.
Shapie, Oliver,O’Donoghue and Tong  (2013) defined kick is an attacking movement which is performed with one leg or two legs simultaneously. A kick can be aimed at any target. It can be front kick ‘ tendingdepan’, side-kick ‘depak’ or semi-circular side kick ‘tendanglengkar’.


Materials and Method

The video of silatolahraga matches were downloaded from the website https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=tanding+sea+games+2016. These matches consist of final that include the pesilat from different range of weight categories. However, in this study will focus on kick indicator. It will be notated based on hit on target, hit elsewhere and missing opponents. The video was observe to analyse the kick indicator (Shapie, Oliver, O'Donoghue and Tong, 2013). Matched sample t-test is used to compare in kicking indicator the winner and loser in silat match.

Motion Categories

Silat exponent’s motions were coded into 13 different types of categories and were defined as follows:
Punch: The punch ‘tumbuk’ attack is done by a hand with a closed fist hitting the target. In silat punching is often used to fight the opponent. It can be a straight punch ‘tumbuk lurus’ or uppercut ‘sauk’ to the exponent body.
Kick: The kick ‘tendang or terajang’ is an attacking movement which is performed with one leg or two legs simultaneously. A kick can be aimed at any target. It can be front kick ‘tendang depan’, side-kick ‘depak’ or semi-circular side kick ‘tendang lengkar’.
Sweep: The blocking movements begin with the posture position ‘sikap pasang’ the exponent stands straight with his hands around his body or close to his chest. Blocking or parrying ‘tangkisan’ can be done using arms, elbows and legs with the purpose to block off or striking back at any attack.
Topple: There are various ways of toppling down one’s opponent. For example, a silat exponent ‘pesilat’ can either push, shove the opponent’s back leg from the bag or from the side, shove, hit, kick, strike or punch to make the opponent lose his balance. Every fall is considered valid as long as the silat exponent topples his opponent down without wrestling or he is able to overpower the opponent whom he has brought down.

Block: The blocking movements begin with the posture position ‘sikap pasang’ the exponent stands straight with his hands around his body or close to his chest. Blocking or parrying ‘tangkisan’ can be done using arms, elbows and legs with the purpose to block off or striking back at any attack.
Catch: The catch ‘tangkapan’ is done by using the hand to obstruct the opponent from carrying out an attack. The silat exponent is able to prevent himself from being attacked by pointing the attack which he has caught to another direction. A catch which twists or drags the opponent is forbidden. Also, a catch which could break the part which is being held such as the leg and waist is also forbidden. These regulations exist to protect the silat exponents.
Dodge: The evade ‘elakan’ technique is carried out by silat exponent when he tries to evade an attack. This technique does not require the silat exponent to touch the opponent in fending off the attack. They are many ways of carrying out his defensive movement such as dodging ‘gelek’, retreat ‘mundur’, evasion to the side ‘elak sisi’, bending ‘elak serung’, jumping ‘lonjak’ and ducking ‘susup’.
Self-Release: Self-release ‘lepas tangkapan’ technique is a technique to unlock any clinch or catch from an opponent.
Block and Punch: The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using the hand to punch the opponent.
Block and Kick: The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using the leg to kick the opponent.
Block and Sweep: The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using sweeping technique to the opponent.
Fake Punch: An action which a silat exponent intends to confuse the opponent using a fake punch to break his opponent’s defensive posture.
Fake Kick: An action which a silat exponent intends to confuse the opponent using a fake kick to break his opponent defensive posture.
  

Statiscal Analysis

            The observation generated data will be frequency counted. Mean and standard deviation (SD) for all the marker has been computed to locate the measurable factors that separated winning and losing group. Statistical analysis was conducted by using statistical package for social scientist (SPSS). Matched sample t-test is a statistical technique that is used to compare two population means in the case of two samples that are correlated. Matched sample t-test is used in after studies, or when the samples are the matched pairs.

Results

Malaysia vs Thailand (Men’s 50kg Class A-Quaterfinal) –Mas win-1

Action
Outcome
Hit elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Not Available
Total
Block

5


5
Block and Kick

1


1
Block and Punch





Block and Sweep

1


1
Kick
16
8
8

32
Fake kick





Punch
14
6
5

25
Fake punch





Self-release





Topple
7
4
5

16
Sweep
6
1


7
Catch
1
10


11
Dodge





Others





Total




98

Exponent
Block
Kick
Others*
Total
Blue
3
14
26
43
Red
2
18
35
55
Total
5
32
61
98



Malaysia vs Vietnam (Men’s 70kg Class E-Final) Mas win-2

Action
Outcome
Hit elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Not Available
Total
Block

1


1
Block and Kick





Block and Punch





Block and Sweep

1


1
Kick
11
6
15

32
Fake kick

8


8
Punch
7
2


9
Fake punch

1


1
Self-release





Topple
4
8


12
Sweep

2


2
Catch
1
10


11
Dodge





Others





Total




77

Exponent
Block
Kick
Others*
Total
Blue
1
11
26
38
Red
0
21
18
39
Total
1
32
44
77



Malaysia vs Indonesia (Men’s 85kg class H-final) Indo-win-1

Action
Outcome
Hit elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Not Available
Total
Block

7


7
Block and Kick
1
1
1

3
Block and Punch

2


2
Block and Sweep
1
2
1

4
Kick
16
16
11

43
Fake kick

1


1
Punch
11
9
4

24
Fake punch





Self-release

1


1
Topple
4
1
2

7
Sweep
2
1
3

6
Catch

8


8
Dodge





Others





Total




106

Exponent
Block
Kick
Others*
Total
Blue
2
26
28
56
Red
5
17
28
50
Total
 7
43 
 56
106



Malaysia vs Singapore (Men’s 75kg Class F- Semifinal) –Sing win-2
Action
Outcome
-
Hit elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Not Available
Total
Block





Block and Kick





Block and Punch





Block and Sweep





Kick
12
9
2

23
Fake kick

7


7
Punch
2
4


6
Fake punch

1


1
Self-release





Topple
13
3


16
Sweep

1
1

2
Catch
4
3


7
Dodge





Others





Total




62

Exponent
Block
Kick
Others*
Total
Blue
12
17
29
Red
 -
11
22
33
Total
23 
39 
62



KEYWORDS:

Meanings
KHTW
Kick hit target winner
KHTL
Kick hit target loser
KHEW
Kick hit elsewhere winner
KHEL
Kick hit elsewhere loser
KMOW
Kick miss opponent win
KMOL
Kick miss opponent lose

Table 1:  Notational analysis in observation of the video Silat Olahraga.(Comparison kicking winner and loser Malaysia team 1&2)

KHTW1
KHTL1
KHEW1
KHEL1
KMOW1
KMOL1
3
2
2
1
1
2
3
3
3
2
1
0
4
2
3
2
1
1
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
10
7
8
5
3
3








*Malaysia win and loser 1

KHTW2
KHTL2
KHEW2
KHEL2
KMOW2
KMOL2
0
2
2
2
2
2
3
0
4
3
2
3
3
2
4
4
3
4
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
6
4
10
9
7
9








*Malaysia win and loser 2


Table 2: Paired T-TEST that are used to find the mean and std. deviation.
Paired Samples Test

Paired Differences
t
df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
95% Confidence Interval of  Difference
Lower
Upper
Pair 1
kick hit target winner1 - kick hit target loser1
1.00000
1.00000
.57735
-1.48414
3.48414
1.732
2
.225
Pair 3
kick missing opponent winner1 - kick missing opponent loser1
-.33333
.57735
.33333
-1.76755
1.10088
-1.000
2
.423
Pair 4
kick hit target winner2 - kick hit target loser2
1.00000
1.00000
.57735
-1.48414
3.48414
1.732
2
.225
Pair 5
kick hit elsewhere winner 2 - kick hit elsewhere loser2
-1.00000
1.00000
.57735
-3.48414
1.48414
-1.732
2
.225
Pair 6
kick missing opponent winner2 - kick missing opponent loser 2
-.66667
.57735
.33333
-2.10088
.76755
-2.000
2
.184


Discussion

  From the table above that we can conclude, the winner of the silat matched get more kick less than the loser, and the most different things is the mean and frequency of kicking which the winner team more than loser team. Rather his kick are hit target or not, the kicking techniques are the most important technique in silat. The kick style in silat is the best kick because the power of the kick is directly delivered and indirectly to the other pesilat. Moreover, in silat other indicators for example catching and topple is important to understand that the pesilat need to master for winning match. The mean and standard deviation of kick hit elsewhere and kick missing opponent by the winners was lower than the kick hit elsewhere and kick missing opponent by the losers, it showed that the losers got no point because their kick does not hit the target and they gain no scores point from kick elsewhere and kick missing opponents.
When compared to kick hit target, kick hit elsewhere and kick missing opponent, the kick hit elsewhere is more significance compared to other indicators. We can say that during the kicking action in the SilatOlahraga matches, the winners groups have a very fast movement at their lower limb. This fast movement means they try to avoid the kicking from the opponent. However, it still hit at every part of the body but no point was given. Besides, we might say that the losers groups were tired at their lower limb. This is due by the neuromuscular activity between the brain and the lower limb became slow or fatigue. So, the kicking from the losers group was different from the winners group.
For my observation, Malaysia team performance that I can conclude is they are quite good in terms of their technique and technical tactics. I guess the training that have been prepared before the SEA Games are exactly in high intensity. Maybe lack of experiences facing the same opponent which are top country so they low in psychology. Besides that, countries like Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia and Malaysia are categorized as the big name in ‘silat’ because all this countries have been practiced this sport long time ago. So, the opponent that drawn to face ‘pesilat’ from these 4 countries feels afraid and anxiety thus confident level of the athlete become low. They can’t perform well and will lead to lose the game. 


Conclusion

Based on the result, we can know kicking is the most technique use by all athlete silat mostly by the man winner. The high rate frequency of kick hit target in order to gains more point. So, the man styles of attacking that use kick as their main collected points. The man should be organized in attacking pattern play by focusing on the kicking that they should use it.
Because of the lack points and quite hard in punching and topple, all athlete described kicking technique is the most impressive point and skills in silat olahraga. Thus, the technique will be uprooted pinpoint to determine the outcome of the match score in this sport. The athlete must be brave to come closer to their opponent especially in round 1 of the game. So it’s easy for them do kicking to their opponent. So this technique gives more point and more easy to athlete to increase the average to win in the match especially for the man winner.



Based on Martial Art Training –There are three recommendations in order to improve the kicking technique in silatolahraga matches. Firstly,the warm arm-up and stretching sessions ought to be between 30 – 45 minutes. Keeping in mind the end goal to set up your legs with overwhelming exercises amid the silat preparing, you have to warm up both of your legs legitimately. Regularly, the warm up session start after the bunga silat preparing. However, it is better for you to begin the warm up session prior even before the coach arrives. Next, kick quicker not harder. On the off chance that you are the apprentice, you have to prepare how to kick accurately first. At that point you have to prepare on the most proficient method to kick quicker by twofold the measure of kicks for each kicking session. You additionally can utilize stopwatch to include the quantity of kicks 10, 20 or even 30 seconds. Lastly, double the kick training on weak leg. No questions that numerous silat examples like to depend on their more grounded leg. In any case, try not to be one of the measurements. You have to rehearse both legs keeping in mind the end goal to be a fruitful silat type. It is difficult however it is conceivable. What you need is only a basic recipe. You have to twofold the measure of kicks for the weaker leg. This implies for each 20 kicks with your prevailing leg, you have to kick 40 times with your weaker leg. This equation helps numerous silat types to have the capacity to enhance their weaker leg speed and power.




Reference


Schepens B, Willems PA, Cavagna GA. The mechanics of running in children. J. Physiol. 1998; 509(3):927-940.

Shapie, M.N.M., Oliver, J. ,O’Donoghue, P. and Tong, R. (2013).
Activity Profile During Action Time in National Silat Competition. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts, 4, 81-86.

Shapie, N. (2010). How to Win ASilatOlahraga Match.

Shapie, N. (2010). How to Win ASilatOlahraga Match.

Aziz A, Tan B, Teh KC. Physiological responses during matches and profile of elite pencak silat exponents. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2002; 1:147-155.

Paired Sample T-Test. (2016). Retrieved April 12, 2017, from
Martial Art Training – 3 Insider Secrets on How to Kick Fast in Silat. (2012).
Retrieved 10 April, 2017, from

Singapore, S.(2015). PencakSilatTanding Men's Class E Final VIE vs MAS 28th SEA Games

Singapore, S.(2015). PencakSilatTanding Men's Class H Final INA vs MAS 28th SEA Games
  
Singapore, S.(2015). PencakSilatTanding Men's Class F Semi-Final SIN vs MAS 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015, Retrieved April 16, 2017, from

Singapore, S.(2015). PencakSilatTanding Men’s Class A Quarterfinal Mas vs Thai 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015, Retrieved April 16, 2017, from

Singapore, S.(2015).PencakSilatTanding Men's Class D Final MAS vs THA (Day 9) 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. Retrieved April 16, 2017, from

Singapore, S.(2015). PencakSilatTanding Men's Class A Final INA vs VIE (Day 9) 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015, Retrieved April 16, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TogWi7jsKcU&list=PLqAmVfhsW7xNxMAyka2XKKbmUHvAPLqv2&index=22


S. S. M. Fong, & G. Y. F. Ng. (2011). Does taekwondo training improve physical fitness? Physical Therapy in Sport, 12(2), 100-106. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2010.07.001

S. Lenetsky, R. J. Nates, M. Brughelli, & N. K. Harris. (2015). Is effective mass in combat sports punching above its weight? Human Movement Science, 40, 89-97. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2014.11.016



About Author




This article was submitted by Football Player UiTM FC an expert of combat sport research. Did you find these article useful? Email: Hazziqnoh@gmail.com






The Different Rate of Kicking Indicator Between Winning & Losing Team

Shapie, M.N.M , (1,2) & Mohd Noh , M.H, (1,3) 1. Fakulti Sains Sukan dan Rekreasi, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Sel...